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Electrical Installation Designs

 E-Book
Sofort lieferbar | Lieferzeit:3-5 Tage I
ISBN-13:
9781118477755
Einband:
E-Book
Seiten:
272
Autor:
Bill Atkinson
eBook Typ:
PDF
eBook Format:
E-Book
Kopierschutz:
Adobe DRM [Hard-DRM]
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

A practical and highly popular guide for electrical contractorsof small installations, now fully revised in accordance with thelatest wiring regulations
The book is a clearly written practical guide on how to designand complete a range of electrical installation projects in acompetitive manner, while ensuring full compliance with the newWiring Regulations (updated late 2008). The updated regulationsintroduced changes in terminology, such as 'basic' and'fault protection', and also changed the regulationnumbers. This new edition reflects these changes. It discusses newsections covering domestic, commercial, industrial and agriculturalprojects, including material on marinas, caravan sites, and smallscale floodlighting. This book provides guidance on certificationand test methods, with full attention given to electrical safetyrequirements. Other brand new sections cover protectivemeasures, additional protection by means of RCDs, the new cableguidelines for thin wall partitions and Part P of the BuildingRegulations.
* Provides simple, practical guidance on how to design electricalinstallation projects, including worked examples and casestudies
* Covers new cable guidelines and Part P of the BuildingRegulations (Electrical Installations) in line with 17thedition of the Wiring Regulations BS 7671:2008
* New chapters on protective measures and additional protectionby means of RCDs (residual current devices)
* Features new wiring projects such as marinas, caravan sites andsmall scale floodlighting and street lighting
* Fully illustrated, including illustrations new to the fourthedition
Inhaltsangabe

About the Authors xvii

Preface to the Fourth Edition xix

Acknowledgements xxv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Layout of chapters 1

1.2 Wiring regulations 2

1.3 Terminology 2

1.4 Competence and responsibility 3

1.5 Procedures 3

1.6 Inspection and test 4

1.7 Completion 5

1.8 Working methods and materials 5

1.9 Operatives 5

1.10 Materials 5

1.11 Amendments to BS 7671: 2008 6

1.12 Voltages 6

1.13 Voltage drop 6

2 Three Bedroom House 8

2.1 The bare minimum 9

2.2 Standards 9

2.3 Building regulations 11

2.4 Load assessment 11

2.5 A typical domestic supply 12

2.6 Project specification 12

2.7 Wiring systems and cable sizes 12

2.8 Lighting 12

2.9 13 A socket-outlets 13

2.10 Cable sizes 15

2.11 Circuit protection 15

2.12 Additional protection for socket-outlets 15

2.13 Arrangement of circuits 16

2.14 Arrangement of consumer unit 16

2.15 Main switch 17

2.16 Earthing and bonding 17

2.17 Gas services bonding and external meters 18

2.18 Supplementary bonding 19

3 A Block of Retirement Flatlets 21

3.1 Two schemes 21

3.2 Early considerations 21

3.3 Other interested parties 22

3.4 Building details 22

3.5 Part 1 – Flats 24

3.6 Part 2 – Landlord’s areas 29

4 Overcurrent Protection 35

4.1 Overload 35

4.2 Overload protection 36

4.3 Overload protective devices 37

4.4 Fault current 38

4.5 Fault Current Protection 39

4.6 Omission of fault current protection 39

4.7 Short-circuit rating 39

4.8 Disconnection times 41

4.9 Earth loop impedance 42

4.10 Summary of cb specification 42

4.11 Conclusion 43

5 An Architect’s Office 44

5.1 Other interested parties 44

5.2 Building structure and finishes 45

5.3 Electrical requirements 46

5.4 Skirting system 51

5.5 Underfloor system 51

5.6 Socket-outlets 51

5.7 Lighting circuits 51

5.8 Battened out ceilings 52

5.9 Extra-Low Voltage lighting (elv) 52

5.10 Group transformers 53

5.11 Individual transformers 53

5.12 Fire prevention 53

5.13 Arrangement of circuits 53

5.14 Distribution boards 54

5.15 Cable sizes 55

5.16 Switchgear 55

5.17 Print machine 57

5.18 Wall heaters in toilets 57

5.19 Storage heaters 57

5.20 Presence of 400 Volts 58

5.21 Access to switchgear 58

5.22 Earthing and bonding 58

5.23 Main earthing terminal 58

5.24 False ceiling grid 59

5.25 Computer installations 60

5.25.1 Computer supplies 60

5.26 High protective conductor currents 60

5.27 Mains filters 60

5.28 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) 61

6 A High Street Shop 62&

7.1 Terminology 75

7.2 Definitions 76

7.3 Green-and-yellow conductors 76

7.4 Protective earthing and protective equipotential bonding 77

7.5 Protective Multiple Earthing (PME) 77

7.6 Reliability of the earth-neutral path 78

7.7 Main bonding 79

7.8 Single fault condition 81

7.9 Supplementary bonding 82

7.10 Circuit Protective Conductors (CPCs) 82

7.11 Steel conduit and trunking 83

7.12 Steel wire armoured cable 84

7.13 Comparison of thermoplastic (PVC) and thermosetting (XLPE) armoured cable 84

7.14 Continuity of cable glands 84

7.15 Equipment having high protective conductor currents 86

7.16 Protective conductor currents 86

7.17 'High integrity' earthing 87

7.18 Earth monitoring and isolated supplies 87

7.19 Socket-outlets for desktop computers 88

7.20 Connections of protective conductors 89

7.21 Residual current devices 89

8 Car Service Workshop 90

8.1 Standards and recommendations 90

8.2 An adaptable design 91

8.3 Motor vehicle repair premises 91

8.4 Other interested parties 91

8.5 Building structure and finishes 91

8.6 Construction 94

8.7 Electrical requirements 94

8.8 Health and safety executive guidance and regulations 94

8.9 Health and safety guidance note HSG 261 95

8.10 Wiring regulations 96

8.11 Load assessment and maximum demand 96

8.12 Maximum demand load and diversity 96

8.13 Lighting 97

8.14 Welder 99

8.15 Compressor 99

8.16 Gas blowers 100

8.17 Phase balance 100

8.18 Estimate of maximum demand 101

8.19 What about a distribution circuit (sub-main)? 102

8.20 Wiring systems 102

8.21 Workshop 102

8.22 Office 105

8.23 Arrangement of circuits 105

8.24 Distribution boards 105

8.25 Cable sizes 105

8.26 Isolation and switching 107

8.27 Machinery 107

8.28 Cooker 107

8.29 Gas boiler 107

8.30 110 V transformer 108

8.31 Earthing and bonding 108

8.32 Main earthing terminal 109

8.33 Protective conductors at distribution board B 109

8.34 Armoured cable glands 109

8.35 Steel conduit and trunking 110

9 Circuits 111

9.1 Terminology 111

9.2 Colours of three phases 111

9.3 Conventional circuits 112

9.4 Lighting circuits 112

9.5 Induction 113

9.6 Socket-outlet circuits 113

9.7 Changing methods 113

9.8 Ring main obsolescence 113

9.9 History of the ring final circuit 114

9.10 Times have changed 114

9.11 Alternative methods 116

9.12 Radial circuits 117

9.13 Introducing the tree 117

9.14 20 A tree 117

9.14.1 Domestic 117

9.14.2 Commercial and similar 117

9.15 32 A tree 118

9.16 Switching and control 119

9.17 Comparison of systems 120

9.18 32 A ring final circuit 120

9.19 20 A tree 121

9.20 Composite circuits 121

10 Farming and Horticulture 123< Mechanical maintenance 140

11.4 Emergency switching 141

11.5 Labelling and notices 143

12 A Village Sports Centre 145

12.1 Special conditions 145

12.2 Codes of practice 145

12.3 Other interested parties 146

12.4 Building details 146

12.5 Structure and finishes 147

12.6 Electricity supply and requirements 148

12.7 Off-peak tariff 148

12.8 Normal tariff 148

12.9 Load assessment and diversity 150

12.10 Off-peak heating 150

12.11 Normal tariff 150

12.12 Total estimated maximum current demand 152

12.13 Wiring systems 152

12.14 Circuitry and cable sizing 154

12.15 Cable grouping factors 155

12.16 Arrangement of circuits 156

12.17 Switchgear 157

12.18 Shock protection 157

12.19 Earthing 157

12.20 Bonding 157

12.21 An occasional problem 157

12.22 Solutions 158

12.23 Requirements for a TT installation 159

13 An Indoor Swimming Pool 160

13.1 Special conditions 160

13.2 Other interested parties 161

13.3 Building details 161

13.4 Application of zoning to this project 162

13.5 Dehumidifiers 167

13.6 Changing room/shower area 167

13.7 Loading and diversity for the swimming pool project 168

13.8 Wiring systems 169

13.9 Cable sizes 170

13.10 Distribution board 170

13.11 Isolation 171

13.12 110 V system 171

13.13 Earthing 172

13.14 Local supplementary bonding 172

13.15 Floor grid 172

14 Cables and Wiring Systems 174

14.1 External influences 174

14.2 Cost considerations 175

14.3 Choosing suitable cable routes 175

14.4 Is armouring always necessary? 175

14.5 Fire barriers 175

14.6 Holes through fire barriers 176

14.7 Sealing the wiring system 176

14.8 Work in progress 176

14.9 Records 177

14.10 Hidden cables 177

14.11 Cables within a floor 177

14.12 Cables above false ceilings 178

14.13 Cables in walls 178

14.14 Mechanically protected cables 179

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