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Organic Crop Breeding

 E-Book
Sofort lieferbar | Lieferzeit:3-5 Tage I
ISBN-13:
9781119949978
Einband:
E-Book
Seiten:
312
Autor:
Edith Lammerts van Bueren
eBook Typ:
PDF
eBook Format:
E-Book
Kopierschutz:
Adobe DRM [Hard-DRM]
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

Organic Crop Breeding provides readers with a thorough review of the latest efforts by crop breeders and geneticists to develop improved varieties for organic production. The book opens with chapters looking at breeding efforts that focus on specific valuable traits such as quality, pest and disease resistance as well as the impacts improved breeding efforts can have on organic production. The second part of the book is a series of crop specific case studies that look at breeding efforts currently underway from around the world in crops ranging from carrots to corn. Organic Crop Breeding includes chapters from leading researchers in the field and is carefully edited by two pioneers in the field.
Organic Crop Breeding provides valuable insight for crop breeders, geneticist, crop science professionals, researchers, and advanced students in this quickly emerging field.
InhaltsangabeContributors

Foreword

William F. Tracy

Preface

Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren and James R. Myers

Acknowledgments

Section 1 General Topics Related to Organic Plant Breeding

Chapter 1 Organic Crop Breeding: Integrating Organic Agricultural Approaches and Traditional and Modern Plant Breeding Methods

Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren and James R. Myers

Introduction

How Different Are Organic Farming Systems?

Consequences for Cultivar Requirements

From Cultivar Evaluation to Organic Seed Production and Plant Breeding Programs

The History of Organic Crop Breeding in Europe and the United States

Perspectives and Challenges for Breeding for Organic Agriculture

Conclusion

References

Chapter 2 Nutrient Management in Organic Farming and Consequences for Direct and Indirect Selection Strategies

Monika Messmer, Isabell Hildermann, Kristian Thorup-Kristensen, and Zed Rengel

Introduction

Availability of Nutrients in Organic Farming

Roots: The Hidden Potential

Even Greater Complexity: Plant-Microbe-Soil Interactions

Importance of Selection Environments

Breeding Strategies

References

Chapter 3 Pest and Disease Management in Organic Farming: Implications and Inspirations for Plant Breeding

Thomas F. D¨oring, Marco Pautasso, Martin S. Wolfe, and Maria R. Finckh

Introduction

Plant Protection in Organic Farming

Key Target Areas of Plant Breeding for Organic Plant Protection

Breeding Goals for Ecological Plant Protection

Plant Breeding Approaches Directly Targeting Pests or Diseases

Plant Breeding Approaches with Indirect Effects on Plant Health

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Chapter 4 Approaches to Breed for Improved Weed Suppression in Organically Grown Cereals

Steve P. Hoad, Nils-Øve Bertholdsson, Daniel Neuhoff, and Ulrich K¨opke

Background

Crop Competitiveness Against Weeds

Crop Traits Involved in Weed Suppression

Selection of Traits and Their Evaluation in Plant Breeding Programs

Selection Strategies

Understanding Crop-Weed Interactions to Assist Plant Breeding

Concluding Remarks and Wider Perspectives

References

Chapter 5 Breeding for Genetically Diverse Populations: Variety Mixtures and Evolutionary Populations

Julie C. Dawson and Isabelle Goldringer

Introduction

Benefits of Genetic Diversity for Organic Agriculture

On-Farm Conservation of Useful Genetic Diversity

Breeding Strategies

Conclusion

References

Chapter 6 Centralized or Decentralized Breeding: The Potentials of Participatory Approaches for Low-Input and Organic Agriculture

Dominique Desclaux, Salvatore Ceccarelli, John Navazio, Micaela Coley, Gilles Trouche, Silvio Aguirre, Eva Weltzien, and Jacques Lanc¸on

Introduction

Centralized and Decentralized Breeding: Definitions

What Can Be Decentralized in Breeding and Why?

Participatory Approaches

PPB: A Single Term Yielding Different Approaches

Some Examples of PPB for Organic and Low Input Agriculture in Southern Countries

Some Examples of PPB for Organic and Low Input Agriculture in Northern Countries

General Conclusions and Limits of PPB Approaches in Organic Farming

References

Chapter 7 Values and Principles in Organic Farming and Consequences for Breeding Approaches and Techniques

Klaus P. Wilbois, Brian Baker, Maaike Raaijmakers, and Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren

Introduction

Arguments Against Genetic Engin Organic Plant Breeding in Specific Crops

Chapter 9 Wheat: Breeding for Organic Farming Systems

Matt Arterburn, Kevin Murphy, and Steve S. Jones

Introduction

Methods

Traits for Selection in Organic Breeding Programs

A Case Study for EPB: Lexi’s Project

A Case Study for Breeding within a Supply Chain Approach: Peter Kunz and Sativa

Conclusion

References

Chapter 10 Maize: Breeding and Field Testing for Organic Farmers

Walter A. Goldstein, Walter Schmidt, Henriette Burger, Monika Messmer, Linda M. Pollak, Margaret E. Smith, Major M. Goodman, Frank J. Kutka, and Richard C. Pratt

Introduction

What Kind of Maize do Organic Farmers Want?

Are There Viable Alternatives to Single Cross Hybrids?

Testing and Using Alternative Hybrids

Are There Benefits for Breeding under Organic Conditions?

For Which Traits Is It Necessary to Test under Organic Conditions?

Choice of Parents for Breeding Programs

Breeding Programs

Future Directions

Notes

References

Chapter 11 Rice: Crop Breeding Using Farmer-Led Participatory Plant Breeding

Charito P. Medina

Introduction

MASIPAG and Participatory Rice Breeding

Beyond PPB: Farmer-Led Rice Breeding

The Breeding Process

Outcomes of the MASIPAG Program

Outlook

References

Chapter 12 Soybean: Breeding for Organic Farming Systems

Johann Vollmann and Michelle Menken

Introduction

Agronomic Characters

Seed Quality Features

Considerations on Breeding Methods

References

Chapter 13 Faba Bean: Breeding for Organic Farming Systems

Wolfgang Link and Lamiae Ghaouti

Purposes of Breeding and Growing Faba Bean

Genetic and Botanical Basics of Breeding Faba Bean

Methodological Considerations

Traits To Be Improved in Faba Bean Breeding

Open Questions, Need for Action

References

Chapter 14 Potato: Perspectives to Breed for an Organic Crop Ideotype

Marjolein Tiemens-Hulscher, Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren, and Ronald C.B. Hutten

Introduction

Required Cultivar Characteristics

Introgression Breeding and Applied Techniques

Participatory Approach: An Example from the Netherlands

Outlook

References

Chapter 15 Tomato: Breeding for Improved Disease Resistance in Fresh Market and Home Garden Varieties

Bernd Horneburg and James R. Myers

Introduction

Botanical and Genetic Characteristics of Tomato

Rationale for Breeding Tomatoes within Organic Systems

Breeding Needs with Focus on Organic Production

Case Studies: Breeding for Late Blight Resistance in Europe and North America

Outlook

References

Chapter 16 Brassicas: Breeding Cole Crops for Organic Agriculture

James R. Myers, Laurie McKenzie, and Roeland E. Voorrips

Introduction

Rationale for Breeding within Organic Systems

Plant Biology

Traits Needed for Adaptation to Organic Production

Consideration of Breeding Methods

A Farmer Participatory Broccoli Breeding Program

Outlook

References

Chapter 17 Onions: Breeding Onions for Low-Input and Organic Agriculture

Olga E. Scholten and Thomas W. Kuyper

Introduction

Robust Onion Cultivars

Breeding for Improved Nutrient Acquisition

Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Product Quality

Conclusion

References

Index

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