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Autor: Eugenio Nappi
ISBN-13: 9783527640300
Einband: E-Book
Seiten: 356
Sprache: Englisch
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eBook Format: E-Book
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Imaging gaseous detectors and their applications

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Describing advanced detectors and their visualization and investigation techniques, this book presents the major applications in nuclear and high-energy physics, astrophysics, medicine and radiation measurements.
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I. IntroductionI.1. Why is it necessary to detect photons and charged particles?
(from the structure of the matter and universe to practical applications)
I.2. Principle of radiation interaction with gases
I.3. History of developments and traditional position-sensitive gaseous detectors:
a) Spark chambers
b) Multi-wire proportional chambers. Why multi-wire proportional chambers revolutionized the detector developments?
c) Parallel-plate chambers
d) Resistive plate chambers (RPCs)
e) Time-projection chambers
f) Gas scintillation detectors and light emission chambers
II. Operational Physics of Gaseous Detectors
1. Townsend avalanches
2. Proportional mode of operation
3. Physics of photon and ion feedbacks
4. Geiger mode of operation
5. Streamers and breakdowns
6. Maximum achievable gas gains and the Raether limit
7. Operation at very high counting rates and the cathode excitement effect
8. Optimization of gas mixtures for the needs of particular measurements or requirements.
III. Recent Developments
III.1.Photosensitive gaseous detectors
1. Multi-wire chambers filled with photosensitive gases
2. Multi-wire and parallel-plate chambers combined with solid photocathodes
III.2. Micropattern gaseous detectors-a new revolution in the detector developments
1. Microstrip gas chambers
2. Microdot gas chambers
3. Microgap parallel-plate chambers and MICROMEGAS
4. Capillary plates, GEMs, GEMs with resistive electrodes
5. LEAK detector and other new designs of micropattern gaseous detectors
6. Operational physics of micropattern gaseous detectors
a) What determines the maximum achievable gain in the micropattern gaseous detectors?
b) Raether limit in the case of the micropattern detectors
c) Cathode excitement effect
7. New possibilities in measurements offered by micropattern gaseous detectors
a) Very high position resolution detectors
b) Micropattern photo-detectors
IV. Applications of Position-Sensitive Gaseous Detectors
1. High energy physics (latest applications of position gaseous detectors in high energy physics experiments for tracking, muon detection and Cherenkov light detection)
2. Astrophysics and search of dark matter (flight and ground experiments)
3. Plasma diagnostics
4. Medicine and biology (full body x-ray scanners, heart diagnostics, mammographic scanners, portal imaging devices for advanced radiotherapy, biological imaging devices, PETs (RPC and high pressure capillary tubes)
5. Industrial and homeland security (crystallographic industrial imaging devices, airport x-ray scanners, muon tomography, UV visualization; recent developments: Rn and Po monitors, detectors of flames and dangerous gases)
V. Conclusions
The role of gaseous detectors in the greatest scientific discoveries, important applications, their possible future and their place with respect to other position-sensitive detectors (solid state, vacuum, liquid?).
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Inhaltsangabe

Preface XI

Color Plates XIII

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Exploring the Universe by Detecting Photons and Particles 1

1.2 Detectors of Photons and Charged Particles 3

1.2.1 Vacuum Detectors 4

1.2.2 Gaseous Detectors 8

1.2.3 Liquid Detectors 8

1.2.4 Solid-State Detectors 11

1.2.5 Combination of Imaging Detectors with Scintillators 15

1.2.6 Hybrid Imaging Detectors 17

1.2.6.1 Vacuum Hybrid Detectors 17

1.2.6.2 Gaseous Hybrid Detectors 18

1.2.6.3 Liquid Hybrid Detectors 18

References 19

2 Basic Processes in Gaseous Detectors 21

2.1 Interaction of Charged Particles and Photons with Matter 21

2.1.1 Ionization Energy Loss 21

2.1.2 Interaction of Photons with Matter 25

2.1.2.1 Interaction of Photons with Gases 26

2.1.2.2 Interaction of Photons with Liquids 32

2.1.2.3 Interaction of Photons with Metals and Other Solid Materials 34

2.2 Drift of Electrons and Ions in Gases 38

2.2.1 Drift of Electrons 38

2.2.2 Drift of Ions 41

2.3 Some remarks on the Diffusion 42

2.3.1 Diffusion of Ions in Electric Fields 42

2.3.2 Diffusion of Electrons in Electric Fields 42

2.3.3 Drift and Diffusion of Electrons Moving in Electric and Magnetic Fields 44

2.4 Avalanche Multiplication in Gases 45

References 50

3 Traditional Position-Sensitive Gaseous Detectors and Their Historical Development: from the Geiger Counter to the Multi-wire Proportional Chamber (1905 till 1968) 53

3.1 Geiger and Spark Counters 54

3.1.1 Single-Wire Counters 54

3.1.1.1 Geiger Counters 56

3.1.2 Proportional Counters 60

3.1.2.1 Energy Resolution 60

3.1.2.2 Position Resolution 63

3.1.3 Physics Processes in Single-wire Counters 66

3.1.4 A Peculiar Type of Proportional Counter: the Gas Scintillation Counter 71

3.2 Parallel-Plate Spark and Streamer Detectors 76

3.2.1 Spark Counters 76

3.2.2 Streamer Chambers 80

3.3 Further Developments: Pulsed High frequency Detectors 81

References 82

4 The Multi Wire Proportional Chamber Era 85

References 90

5 More in Depth about Gaseous Detectors 91

5.1 Pulse-Shape Formation in Gaseous Detectors in Absence of Secondary Effects 91

5.1.1 Parallel-Plate Geometry 91

5.1.2 Cylindrical Geometry 93

5.1.3 MWPC Geometry 95

5.2 Townsend Avalanches and Secondary Processes 99

5.2.1 Role of Photon Emission 99

5.2.1.1 Emission Spectra 99

5.2.1.2 Photoeffect on the Cathode 104

5.2.1.3 Gas Photoionization 108

5.2.2 Role of the Positive Ions 113

5.2.2.1 Ion Recombination on the Cathode in Vacuum 114

5.2.2.2 Recombination on the Cathode in Gas 117

5.2.3 Role of Excited and Metastable Atoms 121

5.3 Discharges in Gaseous Detectors 124

5.3.1 Slow Breakdown 125

5.3.2 Fast Breakdown 127

5.3.3 Self-Quenched Streamers in Gas-Filled Wire Detectors 131

5.4 Features of Operation of Wire Detectors at High Counting Rates 136

5.5 Afterpulses and the Cathode-‘‘Excitation&a Status: RICH Detectors Based on Photosensitive MWPCs 167

7.2.3 TEA and TMAE-Based MWPCs for RICH Devices 168

7.2.4 CsI Based MWPC for RICH 169

7.3 Special Designs of MWPCs and Parallel-Plate Detectors 171

7.3.1 Position-Sensitive Gas Scintillation Chambers and Optical Readout 171

7.3.2 Optical Imaging Gaseous Detectors 174

7.3.3 Cluster Counting 176

7.3.4 MWPCs with a Very High Energy Resolution 179

7.4 Parallel-Plate Avalanche Chambers 182

7.4.1 Important Discoveries in the Physics of Breakdown processes 184

7.4.1.1 Random Avalanche Overlapping 185

7.4.1.2 Recently Discovered Phenomena Involved in Breakdowns at High Counting Rates: Cathode-Excitation Effect and Electron Jets 188

7.4.1.3 Cathode-‘‘Excitation’’ phenomenon in PPACs 190

7.4.1.4 More About Jets 191

7.5 Santonico’s (Spark/Streamer) RPCs 192

7.6 Avalanche RPCs 195

7.6.1 ‘‘Streamer Suppression’’ in Gas Mixtures Used in RPCs 198

7.6.2 Microgap and Multigap RPCs 201

7.6.3 High Counting Rate RPCs 204

7.6.4 High Position Resolution RPCs 206

7.6.5 Cathode-Excitation Effect in RPCs 207

References 210

8 Micropattern Gaseous Detectors 215

8.1 Introduction 215

8.1.1 Main Directions in the Design of Micropattern Gaseous Detectors 216

8.1.2 Microstrip (Microwire)-Type Gaseous Detectors 216

8.1.3 Microdot (Micropin)-Type Detectors 217

8.1.4 Hole-Type Detectors 217

8.1.5 Parallel-Plate-Type Detectors 219

8.2 Signal-Readout Techniques 221

8.3 Efforts in the Design Optimization of Micropattern Detectors 223

8.3.1 Main Trends in the Development 223

8.3.2 How Far Can We Go? 224

8.4 Gain Limit 225

8.4.1 Gain at Low Counting Rates 226

8.4.2 Gain at High Counting Rates 230

8.4.3 Slow breakdowns in micropattern detectors 234

8.5 Position Resolution 235

8.6 Recent Promising Developments in Micropattern Gaseous Detectors 236

8.6.1 Detection of Visible Photons 236

8.6.2 Latest Developments in Micropattern Detectors 240

8.6.2.1 Robust Designs of GEM-Type Detectors: Thick GEM and its modification for Resistive GEM 240

8.6.2.2 MICROMEGAS with Resistive Electrodes 244

8.6.2.3 MSGCs and Microdot Detectors with Resistive Electrodes 245

8.7 Conclusions 246

References 246

9 Applications of Imaging Gaseous Detectors 251

9.1 High-Energy and Nuclear Physics 251

9.1.1 Large-Scale Experiments Using Gaseous Detectors Prior the Large Hadron Collider Era 251

9.1.2 LHC Detectors 262

9.2 Application to Astrophysics 268

9.2.1 Flight Experiments 268

9.2.2 Ground Experiments 269

9.2.3 Underground Experiments 273

9.3 Applications to Medicine and Biology 275

9.3.1 X-Ray Scanners 275

9.3.2 Stationary 2D X-Ray Imaging Detectors 277

9.3.3 Beta Imaging Systems 283

9.3.4 Crystallography 283

9.3.5 TOF PET 285

9.4 Application to Homeland Security 286

9.4.1 X-Ray Scanners 286

9.4.2 Muon Tomography 288

9.5 Plasma Diagnostics 290

9.6 New Areas of Application for

Autor: Eugenio Nappi, Vladimir Peskov
Prof. E. Nappi studied physics at the University of Bari where he completed his higher education in 1981. In 1983 he became a staff researcher at the INFN (Italian Institute for Research in Nuclear Physics) and since 2002 is Director of Research. Since the beginning of his career, he has had a keen interest in the experimental aspects of CERN's physics program of ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions and has been active in the NA35, WA97 and NA57 experiments at the SPS and subsequently, in the conception and development of the ALICE experiment at the LHC. During the sixteen years spent in ALICE, he occupied the highest managerial positions; he is member of the Management Board of ALICE since 1998, the year in which he was the recipient of a two-year scientific associateship at CERN to serve the experiment as deputy-spokesperson. He is the author and co-author of almost 140 papers published in international journals as well as member of the International Scientific Advisory and Organizing Committees in several conferences and workshops on nuclear physics instrumentation. Prof. Vladimir Peskov is a chief scientist at the Institute for Chemical Physics Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). Having obtained his academic degrees (Ph.D in 1976 and Doctor of Sciences in 1982) from the Institute of Physical Problems RAS in Moscow, he worked in the Physics Laboratory RAS led by P.L. Kapitza where he discovered and studied a new type of plasma instability. In 1986 he obtained an Associate Scientist position at CERN in G. Charpak's group and later spent most of his career working at various Scientific Institutions (CERN, Fermi National Laboratory, NASA and the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden) on the instrumentation for high energy physics, astrophysics and medicine. He is an author and co-author of more than one hundred publications and twelve International Patents, member of the International Scientific Advisory and Organizing Committees in several conferences and workshops on instrumentation for high energy physics.

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Autor: Eugenio Nappi
ISBN-13:: 9783527640300
ISBN: 3527640304
Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Seiten: 356
Sprache: Englisch
Auflage 1. Auflage
Sonstiges: Ebook