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Autor: Dieter A. Schlüter
ISBN-13: 9783527644087
Einband: E-Book
Seiten: 1184
Sprache: Englisch
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Synthesis of Polymers

New Structures and Methods
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1
Polymers are huge macromolecules composed of repeating structural units. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials. Due to the extraordinary range of properties accessible, polymers have come to play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life - from plastics and elastomers on the one hand to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins on the other hand. The study of polymer science begins with understanding the methods in which these materials are synthesized. Polymer synthesis is a complex procedure and can take place in a variety of ways. This book brings together the "Who is who" of polymer science to give the readers an overview of the large field of polymer synthesis. It is a one-stop reference and a must-have for all Chemists, Polymer Chemists, Chemists in Industry, and Materials Scientists.
4
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
CONTENT OF VOLUME 1

FOREWORD
References

POLYMER SYNTHESIS: AN INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVE
About this Chapter
Why?
Thesis: There Are No Limits to the Fantasy of a Synthetic Polymer Chemist
Antithesis: We May Be Able to Synthesize Millions of New Polymers - But Why Should We Do So?
Synthesis
Conclusions

FROM HETEROGENEOUS ZIEGLER?NATTA TO HOMOGENEOUS SINGLE-CENTER GROUP 4 ORGANOMETALLIC CATALYSTS: A PRIMER ON THE COORDINATION POLYMERIZATION OF OLEFINS
Introduction
Chapter Prospectus
Fundamentals of Coordination Polymerization
Homogeneous Single-Center Coordination Polymerization
Conclusions

COBALT-MEDIATED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION
Introduction
Mechanistic Considerations
Key Parameters of CMRP
Macromolecular Engineering
Cobalt-Mediated Radical Coupling (CMRC)
Summary and Outlook

ANIONIC POLYMERIZATION: RECENT ADVANCES
Background
Living Anionic Polymerization of Various Monomers
(Meth)acrylate Derivatives Acrylamide Derivatives
Acrylamide Derivatives
Cyclic Monomers
Other Monomers
Reaction of Living Anionic Polymers with Electrophiles: Synthesis of Chain-Functionalized Polymers
Synthesis of Architectural Polymers via Living Anionic Polymerization
Anionic Polymerization: Practical Aspects
Concluding Remarks

ALKYNE METATHESIS POLYMERIZATION (ADIMET) AND MACROCYCLIZATION (ADIMAC)
Introduction
Catalyst Development
Poly(Phenylene Ethynylene)s via ADIMET
ADIMAC-Acyclic Diyne Metathesis Macrocyclization
Conclusions

THE SYNTHESIS OF CONJUGATED POLYTHIOPHENES BY KUMADA CROSS-COUPLING
Introduction to Polythiophene
Kumada Cross-Coupling
Polythiophenes by Kumada Cross-Coupling
Copolymers
Summary and Outlook

"ABSOLUTE" ASYMMETRIC POLYMERIZATION WITHIN CRYSTALLINE ARCHITECTURES: RELEVANCE TO THE ORIGIN OF HOMOCHIRALITY
Introduction
"Through-Space" Asymmetric Polymerization in Inclusion Complexes and Liquid Crystals
Isotactic Oligomers Generated within Monolayers at the Air?Water Interface
"Absolute" Asymmetric Polymerization in 3-D Crystals
Generation of Isotactic Oligopeptides via Polymerization in Racemic Crystals
Isotactic Oligopeptides from the Polymerization of Racemic ValNCA or LeuNCA in Aqueous Solution
Racemic ß-Sheets in the Polymerization of a-Amino-Acids in Aqueous Solutions: Homochiral Oligopeptides and Copeptides via the "Ehler-Orgel" Reaction
Isotactic Oligopeptides from Racemic Thioesters of DL-Leu and DL-Val
Conclusions

SYNTHESIS OF ABIOTIC FOLDAMERS
Introduction
Phenylene Ethynylene Foldamers
Helical Aromatic Amides
Helical Aromatic Ureas
Helical Aromatic Hydrazides
Heterocyclic Foldamers
Conclusions

CYLINDRICAL POLYMER BRUSHES
Introduction
Synthesis of CPBs
Properties of CPBs
CPBs as a Template for 1-D Inorganic/Hybrid Nanostructures
Closing Remarks

BLOCK COPOLYMERS BY MULTI-MODE POLYMERIZATIONS
Introduction
Coupling Methods
Transformation Reactions
Dual Polymerizations
Conclusions

ADVANCES IN THE SYNTHESIS OF CYCLIC POLYMERS
Introduction
Bimolecular Approach
Unimolecular Approach
Ring-Expansion Approach
Conclusions

CYCLODEHYDROGENATION IN THE SYNTHESIS OF GRAPHENE-TYPE MOLECULES
Introduction
Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclodehydrogenation (Scholl Reaction)
Base-Induced Cyclodehydrogenation
Oxidative Photocyclization (Mallory Reaction)
Surface-Assisted Cyclodehydrogenation
Conclusions

POLYMERIZATIONS IN MICRO-REACTORS
Introduction
Polymerization Reactions with Excess Heat Production
Formation of Uniform Particles
Scaling-Up
Conclusions

MINIEMULSION POLYMERIZATION
Introduction
Radical Polymerization
Controlled Radical Polymerizations
Radiation-Induced Polymerization
Metal-Catalyzed Polymerizations
Ionic Polymerizations
Polyaddition
Polycondensation
Enzymatic Polymerization
Oxidative Polymerization
New Synthetic Approaches in Miniemulsion
Conclusions

NEW CONJUGATED POLYMERS AND SYNTHETIC METHODS
Introduction
New Polymers Prepared via Chain-Growth Methods
Mechanism
Remaining Limitations
3
InhaltsangabeList of Contributors XV

Content of Volume 1

1 Foreword 1

References 6

2 Polymer Synthesis: An Industrial Perspective 7
Sebastian Koltzenburg

2.1 About this Chapter 7

2.2 Why? 8

2.3 Thesis: There Are No Limits to the Fantasy of a Synthetic Polymer Chemist 8

2.4 Antithesis: We May Be Able to Synthesize Millions of New Polymers –But Why Should We Do So? 11

2.5 Synthesis 13

2.6 Conclusions 22

Acknowledgments 23

3 From Heterogeneous Ziegler–Natta to Homogeneous Single-Center Group 4 Organometallic Catalysts: A Primer on the Coordination Polymerization of Olefins 25
Lawrence R. Sita

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 Chapter Prospectus 28

3.3 Fundamentals of Coordination Polymerization 30

3.4 Homogeneous Single-Center Coordination Polymerization 44

3.5 Conclusions 63

Acknowledgments 63

References 63

4 Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization 67
Antoine Debuigne, Robert Jérôme, Christine Jérôme, and Christophe Detrembleur

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Mechanistic Considerations 67

4.3 Key Parameters of CMRP 69

4.4 Macromolecular Engineering 73

 

4.5 Cobalt-Mediated Radical Coupling (CMRC) 75

4.6 Summary and Outlook 76

Acknowledgments 77

References 77

5 Anionic Polymerization: Recent Advances 81
Takashi Ishizone and Akira Hirao

5.1 Background 81

5.2 Living Anionic Polymerization of Various Monomers 84

5.3 (Meth)acrylate Derivatives 90

5.4 Acrylamide Derivatives 94

5.5 Cyclic Monomers 96

5.6 Other Monomers 99

5.7 Reaction of Living Anionic Polymers with Electrophiles: Synthesis of Chain-Functionalized Polymers 101

5.8 Synthesis of Architectural Polymers via Living Anionic Polymerization 106

5.9 Anionic Polymerization: Practical Aspects 124

5.10 Concluding Remarks 124

References 125

6 Alkyne Metathesis Polymerization (ADIMET) and Macrocyclization (ADIMAC) 135
Aaron D. Finke and Jeffrey S. Moore

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Catalyst Development 136

6.3 Poly(Phenylene Ethynylene)s via ADIMET 138

6.4 ADIMAC-Acyclic Diyne Metathesis Macrocyclization 143

6.5 Conclusions 149

References 151

7 The Synthesis of Conjugat Generation of Isotactic Oligopeptides via Polymerization in Racemic Crystals 213

8.6 Isotactic Oligopeptides from the Polymerization of Racemic ValNCA or LeuNCA in Aqueous Solution 222

8.7 Racemic β-Sheets in the Polymerization of α-Amino-Acids in Aqueous Solutions: Homochiral Oligopeptides and Copeptides via the ‘‘Ehler–Orgel’’ Reaction 224

8.8 Isotactic Oligopeptides from Racemic Thioesters of DL-Leu and DL-Val 226

8.9 Conclusions 229

References 232

9 Synthesis of Abiotic Foldamers 235
Anzar Khan

9.1 Introduction 235

9.2 Phenylene Ethynylene Foldamers 237

9.3 Helical Aromatic Amides 241

9.4 Helical Aromatic Ureas 245

9.5 Helical Aromatic Hydrazides 248

9.6 Heterocyclic Foldamers 249

9.7 Conclusions 257

Abbreviations 259

References 259

10 Cylindrical Polymer Brushes 263
Jiayin Yuan and Axel H. E. M¨uller

10.1 Introduction 263

10.2 Synthesis of CPBs 264

10.3 Properties of CPBs 297

10.4 CPBs as a Template for 1-D Inorganic/Hybrid Nanostructures 301

10.5 Closing Remarks 308

References 309

11 Block Copolymers by Multi-Mode Polymerizations 315
Mehmet Atilla Tasdelen and Yusuf Yagci

11.1 Introduction 315

11.2 Coupling Methods 316

11.3 Transformation Reactions 320

11.4 Dual Polymerizations 338

11.5 Conclusions 342

List of Symbols and Abbreviations 342

References 343

12 Advances in the Synthesis of Cyclic Polymers 351
Ravinder Elupula, Boyd A. Laurent, and Scott M. Grayson

12.1 Introduction 351

12.2 Bimolecular Approach 352

12.3 Unimolecular Approach 355

12.4 Ring-Expansion Approach 364

12.5 Conclusions 369

References 370

13 Cyclodehydrogenation in the Synthesis of Graphene-Type Molecules 373
Milan Kivala, Dongqing Wu, Xinliang Feng, Chen Li, and Klaus Müllen

13.1 Introduction 373

13.2 Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclodehydrogenation (Scholl Reaction) 375

13.3 Base-Induced Cyclodehydrogenation 400

13.4 Oxidative Photocyclization (Mallory Reaction) 406

13.5 Surface-Assisted Cyclodehydrogenation 409

13.6 Conclusions 415

References 416

14 Polymerizations in Micro-R New Synthetic Approaches in Miniemulsion 468

15.12 Conclusions 469

References 470

16 New Conjugated Polymers and Synthetic Methods 475
Anne J. McNeil and Erica L. Lanni

16.1 Introduction 475

16.2 New Polymers Prepared via Chain-Growth Methods 476

16.3 Mechanism 478

16.4 Remaining Limitations 481

16.5 Conclusions and Outlook 482

References 483

17 Polycatenanes 487
Zhenbin Niu and Harry W. Gibson

17.1 Introduction 487

17.2 Main-Chain Polycatenanes 489

17.3 Side-Chain Polycatenanes 508

17.4 Polymeric Catenanes 515

17.5 Catenane Structures in Polymer Networks 521

17.6 Conclusions and Perspective 524

Acknowledgments 524

References 526

18 Multicyclic Polymers 531
Takuya Yamamoto and Yasuyuki Tezuka

18.1 Introduction 531

18.2 Ring Polymers with Branches (‘‘Tadpoles’’) 533

18.3 Dicyclic Polymers 534

18.4 Tricyclic and Tetracyclic Polymers 537

18.5 Oligocyclic Polymers 543

18.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 545

References 545

Content of Volume 2

19 Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization 547
Michael R. Buchmeiser

19.1 Introduction to Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) 547

19.2 Well-Defined Transition Metal-Based Initiators for ROMP 548

19.3 Latent Initiators for ROMP 559

19.4 ‘‘Living’’ ROMP 561

19.5 Summary and Outlook 579

References 580

20 Recent Advances in ADMET Polycondensation Chemistry 587
Erik B. Berda and Kenneth B. Wagener

20.1 Introduction 587

20.2 Functionalized Polyethylenes 588

20.3 Functional Polymers and Materials via ADMET 592

20.4 Exotic Polymer Structures 595

20.5 Summary and Outlook 598

References 598

21 Macromolecular Engineering via RAFT Chemistry: From Sequential to Modular Design 601
Christopher Barner-Kowollik, James P. Blinco, and Sébastien Perrier

21.1 Introduction 601

21.2 Sequential Design 602

21.3 Modular Design 614

21.4 Conclusions 623

References 624

22 Suzuki Polycondensation 627
Junji Sakamoto and A. Dieter Schlüter

22.1 Introduction 627

22.2 General Remarks 627

22.3 Ho

Editiert von: Dieter A. Schlüter, Craig Hawker, Junji Sakamoto
A. Dieter Schluter is since 2004 Professor for polymer chemistry at the Materials Department of the ETH Zurich. He studied chemistry and geophysics at the University of Munich and received in 1984 his PhD under the supervision of Prof. G. Szeimies. After post-doctoral fellowships with Prof. K. P.C. Vollhardt (UC Berkeley, USA) and Prof. W.J. Feast (University of Durham, UK) he was head of the polymer synthesis research group in Prof. G. Wegner's department at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Polymerforschung (Mainz, Germany). 1991 he finished his habilitation, received a scholarship award of the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie and started as Professor for polymer chemistry at the University of Karlsruhe. From 1992 to 2004 he was Full Professor at the Free University of Berlin. Since 2012 he is an elected personal member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences. His research interests are in the area of polymer synthesis with a visible component of organic chemistry. Craig J. Hawker, FRS received his BSc (1984) degree from Queensland, Australia his PhD (1988) degree from the Cambridge (UK), followed by a post-doctoral fellowship with Professor Jean M.J. Frechet at Cornell from 1988 to 1990. In 2005 he moved from the IBM Almaden Research Center to the University of California, Santa Barbara where he is the Heeger Chair of Interdisciplinary Science. He is also the Director of the Materials Research Laboratory, founding Director of the Dow Materials Institute and visiting Chair Professor at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. His research activities focus on synthetic polymer chemistry and nanotechnology and has led to more than 45 patents and over 300 papers. He has received a number of awards for his work and in 2010 he was named as a Fellow of the Royal Society. Junji Sakamoto is currently a Habilitand at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich. Born in Kyoto, Japan in 1973, he studied chemistry and polymer science at Kyoto University, and earned his PhD in 2002 on the synthesis of polysaccharides under the supervision of Prof. S. Kobayashi. He carried out his postdoctoral research with Prof. K. Mullen at the Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, working on the synthesis of dendrimers (2002-2004). He then moved to the group of Prof. A.D. Schluter at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, working on the synthesis of macrocycles, where since 2006 he has been a group leader for 2D polymers, Suzuki polycondensation and new polymerization methodology leading to unprecedented structures.

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Autor: Dieter A. Schlüter
ISBN-13:: 9783527644087
ISBN: 3527644083
Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Seiten: 1184
Sprache: Englisch
Auflage 1. Auflage
Sonstiges: Ebook